The first successful cord blood transplantation took place in Paris in 1988 on a child suffering from Fanconi anemia. The cord blood was provided by a healthy sibling. Since then, more than 20,000 cord blood transplantations have taken place In the context of family stem cell banking, an allogeneic unit can be used by any sibling that is compatible with the donor. An Autologous transplantation is when the donor and the recipient are the same person. Autologous transplantations are already being performed for the therapy of certain diseases. Furthermore, clinical trials are in progress for the treatment of non-hematological diseases like heart disease, brain disorders, malignancies, rehabilitation of hearing disorders in children caused by head injuries during birth and autism.