Mesenchymal Stem Cells do not differentiate into blood cells but can generate many other cell groups, such as:
Bone and cartilage cells
Smooth muscle cells
The striking feature of the plasticity of mesenchymal cells, in combination with their immunoregulatory activity, makes them a unique tool in the field of Regenerative Medicine. Mesenchymal cells are currently used in transplantations simultaneously with hematopoietic stem cells, so as to achieve faster and more efficient implantation of the graft in the bone marrow, while reducing risk of rejection due to Graft Versus Host Disease (GvHD, Leukemia. 2007; 21: 1733–1738).Moreover, the use of mesenchymal cells is expanding towards cartilage reconstruction (Maturitas. 2014; 78:188–198) and Multiple Sclerosis (MS) (Arch Neurol. 2010; 67: 1187–1194).The results of various clinical trials regarding autologous and heterologous transplantations of mesenchymal cells are very promising for future clinical applications.Satisfactory results have also been achieved in the field of Aesthetic Medicine. In fact the use of mesenchymal stem cells is considered a particularly safe procedure (Arch Plast Surg. 2013; 40: 666–675).